Effect of ERP systems to business changed the existing fundamental industrial structure and a new atmosphere has emerge.
DEFINITION OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS
Information technologies have replaced the traditional business system structures. Their application changed the existing fundamental industrial structure and a new atmosphere has emerged in which successful competition rests on the ability to do so existing services are upgraded using modern information technology. Primary information technologies are based on integration and are interrelated computers, their networking, share shared information with the possibility access for processing of other users.
1. Basic concepts of information systems
Information systems can be interpreted as a set of well-defined rules and procedures by means of which people, equipment or both, work on a specific input with the purpose to
get information that will meet the needs of certain individuals in a particular business
situation. The aim of the information system is to provide the organization with the right information, on the right place, at the right time, and at a minimum cost. Functions of the information system. They share: collecting, processing, storing data and information, and delivering them beneficiaries.
2. Basic features of information systems
Observed through systems, each system with its environment exchanges, along with matter and energy, and information, ie maintains some information links. Input information is inside systems are processed, ie transformed or transformed into output information. In elementary therefore, the definition of the information system implies that part of the actual one (real, concrete) system that serves the transformation of inputs into output information. IN Practice is the overall problem of processing information, however, more complex. Information is provided they first collect or receive from a certain source, then they are stored, they are stored in certain appropriate media to be available for longer periods or permanently. After storage information is processed using arithmetic-logic procedures. So transformed are recalled and then delivered to the endusers (consumers). Taking into account all the above, a wider definition of the term can be formulated. Information System: The information system is arranged by a set of elements, respectively components interacting with the functions of collecting, processing, storing and dissemination (release to use) of information. In business systems, information the systems support and informationally serve business processes and operations, business decision making and development and implementation of competitive business strategies. In that the meaning can be talked about business information systems.
3. Components of a business information system
The business information system consists of the following components:
– Material-technical (hardware) hardware business information systems that make up all the parts of which they are made computer system: mechanical parts, magnetic, electrical and electronic components parts, devices and devices. Hardware is the lowest level of the computer system.
– Intangible component (software, software) of business information a system that represents the totality of human knowledge embedded in machinery, equipment and equipment devices that are in themselves a subject of processing or dictate the processing method in the system.
– A Human Component of Business Information Systems – Make It All People In any
which function and with any intention participate in the work of the system and use the results his work. It refers to individual employees, teams and all people involved
in the operation of a business information system.
– A network (portable) component of business information systems representation a communication structure for data transfer to larger or smaller distances between hardware elements within the system itself or its connection to the environment.
In a network environment, computers exchange data, enable communication, parallel work etc.
– The organizational component of business information systems is the totality
standards, measures, procedures and regulations that are functionally and timely harmonized the work of the above-mentioned components to create a harmonious whole. All of the above components of the business information system are in mutual interaction.
4. Classification of information systems
Information systems are complex systems, which work on designing and developing such
the system represents an organizational and technologically complex process. Development of information systems the knowledge and skills required for designing and designing the program, defined design tools, and design methodology. Considering the specialization the functionality of information systems, they can be: general (generic) or specialized. With regard to management and the amount of built-in knowledge, information systems can be: transaction information systems, decision support systems, expert systems and systems office automation.
Information systems in their development go through various phases. These are: 16
A) Data Processing (DP): At this stage, processing is processed data. The main idea of this system is to get elemental information.
B) Managament Information System (MIS): provides insights into all the information needed for management management organization. Phase that attempts to troubleshoot operating management issues to a company using a distributed data entry at the site of their production and flexible execution.
C) There are the following subsystems: the marketing information system, financially
information system, production monitoring information system, personnel information system and others.
D) Decision Support System (DSS): the system of which it is the main purpose is to provide support to management when making important decisions. This one the system has mechanisms for organizing information, identification and retrieval information, analysis and transformation of information, choice of decision model and analysis of the obtained results. Its basic goal is to support management and decision-making at all levels. Apply in dynamic economics branches.
5. Expert System (ES): is a type of computer information
knowledge-based systems, and can emulate the role of experts on to a specific field in a way that it has the ability to conclude and use knowledge from the knowledge base. Expert systems imitate expert knowledge.
6. Executive Information System (EIS): Supports making business decisions.
– Life cycle information system phases business information management system starts with the concept of a lifecycle business information system. Lifecycle is a kind of management framework project. Lifecycle of business information system development defines activities that are needs to be done in the course of development, introduces consistency and standardized system development as well as provides control points for monitoring and project management. Varga lists the six phases of the information system development:
A) Planning of the information system: this phase is also called the strategy development phase information system. The information system planning phase is decisive importance for large systems, because at this stage managers decide on further project development. For smaller information systems this phase is not necessary. In the beginning of this phase determines the scope of information system building, with scope the system depends on the identified users, the disadvantages of the existing system and objectives of the new information system. Phase ends with rating of feasibility information system and elaborated plan of further development through the next phase, assessing the required financial resources and other resources, assessing possible the risk of further construction, etc.
B) Business system analysis: In the analysis phase, it is necessary to identify the users in detail requirements, ie what the information system should do to meet expectations
user. Various discovery techniques like interviewing apply users, scenarios, cases of use, work at work sessions, brainstorming, study incoming output documents running in a business system, etc. The end result implies defining the information system model that will be create according to user requirements.
D) Formation of the information system: At this stage, the way in which it will be elaborated information system to work. Information System Structure, Presented Entity and Connection Diagrams, is formed into a database that will be on computer. Database on a computer can consist of a set of links in relational database. They must also be determined technologically as well as organizationally the operating system conditions, such as: computer and other IT equipment, are required programs (software) and organizational and personnel preconditions for information work systems (changes in company organization, additional training of users).
E) Information system design: The programming phase is programmed pre-defined
processes, and as a result, they get functional programs (software). This phase ends by creating, checking and documenting the program part information system.
F) Introduction of a new system in operation: Implementation of a new information system in operation represents the phase in which the new information system is put into operation. This phase implies training of a system user where users are introduced to the purpose information system, how it is used, and new procedures. The final step of this phase implies testing the entire system. It’s about complete review of the new solution with the help of actual data, new procedures and simulating the normal operation of a new information system.
G) Maintenance of the information system: Like every product, the information system needs maintain for two reasons: to acknowledge the detected errors and disadvantages discovered during work, and to adapt the system to changes in the business system that is being created after its introduction. Poor maintenance of the information system results in everything less satisfying customer requirements. A system that can not be maintained can lead to the justified introduction of a new information system, which means that we should again embark on a new cycle of information system building through all of the development phase described above.
7.Information system management
The purpose of the information system is to provide the information that is necessary for the management business system. Management implies making decisions related to business system. Quality decision making is based on reliable, timely and complete information. The information used in decision making can arise by processing data from different sources. These are the data generated in the business process, data arising out of the business system, and data generated in the decision making process.
The successful functioning of the business system is based on proper management.
It includes three groups of activities:
A) Planning, which determines the business system goals and elaborates their ways
realization. Planning is the basis for making other business decisions.
B) Organization, which business systems are organizing for
fulfilling the set goals, by prescribing its structure and rules,
ie the procedure for conducting business activities.
D) Controlling, monitoring the achievement of business objectives, establishes
the possibility of deviations and initiates the adoption of corrective decisions.